America, guns and freedom: Part II — An international perspective

Surgical Neurology International
Article Type: 
Published Date: 
Friday, November 16, 2012

The need for reducing gun violence is discussed along with the necessity for citizens to assume some responsibility for protecting themselves, their families, and their property from criminal elements because the police cannot physically be everywhere to protect us all of the time. The problem of sensationalization of gun crimes by the media, multiple shootings by deranged individuals, accidents with firearms, suicide rates, and children with guns are discussed.

The relationship of civilian disarmament in the context of tyrannical governments and genocide are also explored. Incidents in which liberty has been extinguished because firearms have been banned and citizens have been disarmed by increasingly oppressive governments, and the converse, countries where freedom has been preserved by armed citizens are also described.

We conclude that guns in the hands of law‑abiding citizens deter crimes, and nations that trust their citizens with firearms have governments that sustain liberty and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical, and are a potential danger to good citizens and a peril to humanity. — Abstract

In his celebrated book, The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy, author and gun rights attorney, David Kopel, makes the point that disparate countries such as Japan and Switzerland have low crime rates, regardless of gun control laws, because of close ties engendered in the traditional family. In those countries, parents spend time with their properly reared children, who are then imbued with a sense of civility as well as civic duty[29] In this milieu, children can be brought up with firearms, instructed in their use and safety, and when they grow up, they should be allowed not only to own guns, but to carry concealed weapons for self and family protection.[18]

However, convicted felons and mentally unstable people forfeit this right by virtue of the fact they are a potential danger to their fellow citizens. This has been recently demonstrated by the tragedies that took place in Arizona[6] and in Aurora, Colorado;[20] not only in the United States, but also in Oslo, Norway.[2] These three specific cases represent overt failures in the criminal justice or the mental health system, rather than a problem with “too many guns” in the hands of law‑abiding citizens. The case in Arizona is particularly revealing because that deranged individual should have received mental health treatment, which was not administered.[6]


Dr. Mark Rosenberg, a former American public health official, once stated, “Most of the perpetrators of violence are not criminals by trade or profession. Indeed, in the area of domestic violence, most of the perpetrators are never accused of any crime. The victims and perpetrators are ourselves — ordinary citizens, students, professionals, and even public health workers.”[26] That erroneous statement is contradicted by available data, U.S. government data.

According to the United States Department of Justice, the typical murderer has had a prior criminal history of at least six years, with four felony arrests in his record, before he finally commits murder.[4] Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics reveal that 75% of all violent crimes for any locality are committed by 6% of hardened criminals and repeat offenders.[17] Less than 2% of crimes committed with firearms are carried out by licensed (e.g. concealed carry permit holders), law‑abiding citizens.[7,27,31]

Much has been said about “crimes of passion” that supposedly take place impulsively, in the heat of the night or in the furor of a domestic squabble. Criminologists have pointed out that homicides in this setting are the culmination of a long simmering cycle of violence. In one study of police records in Detroit and Kansas City, it was revealed that in “90% of domestic homicides, the police had responded at least once before, during the prior two years, to a disturbance,” and in over 50% of the cases, the police had been called five or more times to that dysfunctional domicile.[45]

These are not crimes of passion consummated impulsively in the heat of the night by ordinary citizens, but the result of violence in highly dysfunctional families, in the setting of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, or other criminal activities. Violent crimes continue to be a problem in the inner cities of the large metropolitan areas, with gangs involved in robberies, drug trade, juvenile delinquency, and even murder. Yet crimes in rural areas, despite the preponderance of guns in this setting, remain low.[7,17,19,27,28,39]

Gun availability to law‑abiding citizens does not cause crime. However, a permissive criminal justice system, with revolving prison doors in the context of gun prohibition, exacerbates the problem of crime by making it more difficult for law‑abiding citizens to defend themselves, theirUS homicide and suicide rates families, and their property. In fact, there was a modest increase in both homicide and suicide rates in the United States after prohibition in the 1920s and again following the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968 [Figure 1]. Those trends have fortunately subsided.[18,19,27,28]

As to how citizens can protect themselves from criminal assailants when the police, more often than not, are not there to protect them, the National Victims Data suggests that, “while victims resisting with knives, clubs, or bare hands are about twice as likely to be injured as those who submit, victims who resist with a gun are only half as likely to be injured as those who put up no defense.” Of particular interest to women and self‑defense, “among those victims using handguns in self‑defense, 66% were successful in warding off the attack and keeping their property. Among those victims using non‑gun weapons, only 40% were successful.”[27] The gun is a great equalizer for law‑abiding citizens in self and family protection, particularly women, when they are accosted in the street or when they are defending themselves and their children at home.[7,27,28,32,40,43]


Although not all citizens would want to carry a concealed firearm for self‑protection, criminologists point out that criminals do make quick “risk‑versus‑benefit” assessments about that looming, potential threat. Thus, criminological studies consistently reveal that just the knowledge that one in five or six citizens in a public place could very well be armed can deter crimes and could very well avert massacres, as has been the case in Israel, after the infamous Maalot Massacre,[8] Switzerland,[21] and the United States.[9,27‑29,31] In Switzerland, for example, where gun laws are notoriously liberalized, there was not a single report of armed robbery in Geneva in 1993![21]

Now, let us consider the recent case in Norway. After bombing a government building in Oslo and then taking over Utoya, an island in a nearby lake, a homicidal killer perpetrated a horrible massacre.[2] He is a declared anti‑Islamic fanatic, but instead of Moslems in a foreign land, Anders Behring Breivik massacred 69 of his fellow countrymen. Breivik systematically hunted down unarmed people at a youth camp located on that island, methodically killing mostly teenagers who could not defend themselves. Imagine if just one adult had carried a gun, knew how to use it, and was prepared to defend his / her life and the lives of others.

Yes, there still may have been a massacre, but not 69 people shot haplessly in a virtual dove shoot. Just one individual armed and willing to protect his/her life and the lives of others was all that was needed to stop the carnage. Furthermore, even if the intended victim was prosecuted later for killing the madman in self‑defense and for standing his/her ground, it would have limited the massacre and saved the lives of others. This is true not only for Norway, but for any country, even a European country with draconian gun control laws.

However, in most European countries guns have long been registered, or banned and confiscated. Citizens are disarmed in the course of “progress,” and in those countries, no one even thinks about self‑defense anymore. They depend on the government completely for protection. Where guns are banned only criminals have guns.[10,11,27‑29,31]

In Macon, Georgia, USA, we recently had the case of a business woman (also a grandmother), who was attacked by two thugs bent on robbing her and perhaps even raping and killing her. They followed the woman home at 1:30 a.m. as she left one of her convenience store businesses. The thugs pulled guns on her and demanded cash as she sat in her car. However, the grandmother was armed. Shots were exchanged. The woman wounded one of her assailants, who was later apprehended as he rushed to a local hospital. The other criminal also fired shots at her, but escaped. She is safe and sound. “I carry a gun all the time,” she told a local newspaper reporter![35]

Of course in the southern United States this grandmother is a heroine and no one would consider prosecuting her.[25] But that is not the usual course of events in other countries, particularly in Great Britain. In England, a farmer who defended his home and possibly his life was sentenced to life in prison for shooting a burglar, a dangerous criminal![11]


The way the subject of guns and violence is reported by the popular media brings us to another problem. Many reports are saturated with media bias and sensationalism. The mainstream American press, just like their Western European counterparts, is overtly for gun control and look askance at citizens possessing firearms for self and family protection. With that in mind, let us take a look at how the media reports mass shootings in America. Four illustrative cases will help us draw inferences as to the nature of these incidents in the United States and the associated media coverage.

In 1997, in Pearl, Mississippi, 16‑year‑old Luke Woodham used a hunting rifle to kill his ex‑girlfriend and her close friend and wound seven other students. Assistant Principal Joel Myrick retrieved his handgun from his automobile and halted Woodham’s shooting spree. Myrick held the young delinquent at bay until the police arrived. Later it was discovered that Woodham had also used a knife to stab his mother to death earlier that morning. Even though this shooting incident was widely reported, the fact that Mr. Myrick, an armed citizen, had prevented a larger massacre by retrieving and using his handgun was ignored by the media.

Then in 1998, in Edinboro, Pennsylvania, a deadly scenario took place when 14‑year‑old Andrew Wurst killed one teacher and wounded another teacher as well as two fellow classmates. The shooting rampage in Edinboro was halted by local merchant James Strand, who used his shotgun to force the young criminal to halt his firing, drop his gun, and surrender to the police.

And in another unreported incident in Santa Clara, California, Richard Gable Stevens rented a rifle for target practice at the National Shooting Club on July 5, 1999, and then began a shooting rampage, herding three store employees into a nearby alley, and stating he intended to kill them. When Stevens became momentarily distracted, a shooting club employee, who had a .45 caliber handgun concealed under his shirt, drew his weapon and fired. Stevens was hit in the chest and critically wounded. He was held at bay until the police arrived. A massacre in the making was prevented. The armed employee, an unsung hero, was ignored by the major media. Why are these and other similar incidents, where the tables are turned, and citizens use guns to protect themselves and others, only seldom reported by the mainstream media?[7‑9]

Finally, the more recent shooting in Aurora, Colorado, on July 19, 2012, resulted in the death of a dozen people because a deranged individual with criminal intent, James Holmes, was able to enter a theater with a posted “gun‑free zone” sign, a designated public place where armed law‑abiding citizens are not allowed to carry their concealed firearms. This theater had a “no guns policy,” similar to the situation in Norway, which amounts to a potential dove shoot, where only the predator, a hunter of humans, is armed. Interestingly, the United States media did not report another shooting incident that took place three months earlier in, of all places, Aurora, Colorado, where a law‑abiding citizen, an armed church‑goer, shot another human predator and stopped a shooting rampage, saving his life and that of others in the process.[20,33]

As we have described in Part I of this essay — thanks to the study of Dr. Edgar A. Suter, former Chairman of Doctors for Integrity in Research and Public Policy, and others, whose studies we have cited — we now know that in the United States the defensive use of firearms by law‑abiding citizens surpasses the illegal use of guns by criminals:

The defensive use of firearms by citizens amounts to 2.5 million uses per year and dwarfs the offensive gun use by criminals. In the United States, between 25 and 75 lives are saved by a gun in self and family protection for every life lost to a gun in crime. Medical costs saved by guns in the hands of law‑abiding citizens are 15 times greater than costs incurred by the criminal use of firearms. Guns also prevent injuries to good people and protect billions of
dollars of property every year.

Unfortunately, the American media does not give those defensive uses of firearms the attention they deserve, and they go unreported. By and large, to read about the cases where law‑abiding citizens use firearms for self and family protection, one has to read independently published books such as Robert A. Waters' excellent tome, The Best Defense.[43] Rarely do these cases get publicized in the mass media nor are they compiled, studied, and published in the medical journals, as public health investigators do with their “gun and violence” research.[7,13,27,31,40,43]


Several gun researchers have written about suicides and have linked these fatalities to the availability of guns.[38] Medical critics, however, cite the overwhelming evidence compiled from the psychiatric literature that untreated or poorly managed depression is the real culprit behind the relatively high rates of suicide in the United States and other countries. Moreover, International suicide ratescountries such as Japan and Hungary, and those in Scandinavia — all of whom boast of draconian gun control laws and low rates of firearm availability — have much higher rates of suicide (two‑to‑three times higher) than the United States.[7,26,29] In those countries, citizens simply use other cultural or universally available methods, such as Seppuku (Hara‑kiri) in Japan, drowning in the Danube as in Hungary, suffocation by poisonous gases from stoves or automobile exhausts, or hanging and strangulation, as in Denmark and Germany, or even drinking agricultural pesticides, as is commonly done in Sri Lanka. Moreover, in these countries, citizens commit suicide quite effectively by these methods at higher rates than in the United States [Figure 2].

A child’s death from any cause is a tragedy. In the United States in the year 2000, 600 children and adolescents died of accidental gunshot wounds, 2,700 perished in motor vehicle accidents, 3,600 children died from burns, 3,900 died from drowning, and 12,100 died from poisoning.* These are all tragedies, but do we want to ban automobiles, matches, swimming pools, and household chemicals? Firearm accident rates in the United States have been declining steadily since the turn of the century, because of the emphasis placed on gun safety and education US Firearm accident ratescourses, including the National Rifle Association’s Eddie Eagle program, which has touched an excess of 11 million youngsters in the United States[7,30] [Figure 3].

As far as adolescent violence is concerned, more than 20,000 laws are already on the books in the United States, including a sizable number of laws pertaining to the proscription of handgun possession by minors and banning guns on school grounds. Yet, despite all the media’s sensationalization of crime, the available FBI statistics for the year 2000 show that, like the not‑so‑well‑known drop in gun accident rates, there has also been a steady decline in homicide rates in every segment of American society. In fact, in the United States, murder and violent crimes have reached 30‑ and 25‑year lows, respectively.[18] The opposite has been the case in Australia and Great Britain.[10,11,32,39]


Australians learned the lessons of indiscriminate, draconian gun control laws the hard way. In 1996, a criminally insane man shot to death 35 people at a Tasmanian resort. The government immediately responded by passing stringent gun control laws, banning most firearms, and ordering their confiscation. More than 640,000 guns were seized from ordinary Australian citizens.[10]

As a result, there was a sharp and dramatic increase in violent crime against the disarmed law‑abiding citizens, who in small communities and particularly in rural areas were now unable to protect themselves from brigands and robbers. That same year in the state of Victoria, for example, there was a 300% increase in homicides committed with firearms. The following year, robberies increased by almost 60% in South Australia. By 1999, assaults had increased by almost 20% in New South Wales. Two years following the gun ban/confiscation, armed robberies had risen by 73%, unarmed robberies by 28%, kidnappings by 38%, assaults by 17%, and manslaughter by 29%, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics.[41]

Interestingly, the same phenomenon occurred in Great Britain. Following a 1996 massacre of school children by a madman in Dunblane, Scotland, the British government banned and ordered the confiscation of most firearms. Since then, a horrific crime wave has taken place in England and Scotland. In 1998, the United States Department of Justice declared that the rate of muggings in England had surpassed those in the United States by 40%, while assault and burglary rates were nearly 100% higher in England than in the United States. To make matters worse for England — and this is also true for Canada — in those countries where citizens are disarmed in their homes, day burglary is commonplace and dangerous because criminals know they will not be shot at if caught in flagrante delicto. The criminals have nothing to fear from disarmed and helpless homeowners. Not so in the United States, where burglars not only prefer night burglaries, but they try to make sure homeowners are not at home to avoid being shot at by the intended victim.[10,29,32]

The Sunday Times of London, on January 11, 1998, wrote, the rising tide of thievery and burglaries in England dubbed Britain “a nation of thieves”. The same article further noted, “More than one in three British men has a criminal record by the age of 40. While America has cut its crime rate dramatically Britain remains the crime capital of the West. Where have we gone wrong?”[11]

US Women with firearmsIt does not have to be this way. A study performed by the United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention tracked 4,000 juveniles aged 6–15 years, in Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and Rochester (NY) from 1993 to 1995. The investigators found that children who were taught to use firearms with parental supervision, as in hunting or target shooting, were 14% less likely to commit acts of violence and street crimes than children who had no guns in their homes (24%); whereas, children who obtained guns illegally, did so at the whopping rate of 74%.[42] This study also provided more evidence that in close nuclear families, where children were close to their parents, youngsters could be taught to use guns responsibly. These youngsters, in fact, grew up to be more responsible in their conduct and more civil in their behavior [Figure 4].


Depending on the level of culture and social progress, violence can take different forms in different societies.[39] For example, in the mid‑twentieth century, the communist government of dictator Joseph Stalin killed more Soviet citizens through privation, forced labor, and famine than soldiers who succumbed while fighting the Germans in World War II on the battlefields of Russia.[36]

More recently, in 1994, the Hutu‑led Rwandan government massacred between 800,000 and 1.1 million people, mostly Tutsis, in a genocide carried out largely with machete‑wielding government forces. The massacres took place despite the presence nearby of the United Nation “peace‑keeping” forces, armed with automatic weapons, who failed to intervene.The Tutsis were not only surprised, but also unarmed and helpless.

Civilian disarmament has always preceded genocide in authoritarian and totalitarian states. In the gruesome, but monumental book, Lethal Laws, we learn that repressive governments that conducted genocide and mass killings of their own populations have first always disarmed their citizens.[37] The political formula for accomplishing this goal, hallmarks of tyrannical governments, is and remains: public propaganda against firearms, followed step‑by‑step by gun registration, banning, confiscation, and finally total civilian disarmament. Enslavement of the people then follows easily with limited resistance.[12] This is what happened in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Red China, Cuba, and other totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. In Part I, I presented the reader with short introductory vignettes about the ghastly incidents in Poland, Hungary, and Cuba, as they relate to civilian disarmament in both war and peacetime.

When presented with these deadly chronicles and perilous historic sequences, the popular opinion is “it cannot happen here”. As to the dangers of licensing of gun owners and registration of firearms, the same uninformed respondents frequently retort: “If you don’t have anything to hide, then you don’t have anything to fear!” Followed by, “I see nothing wrong with gun registration and some restrictions on gun ownership, because we have to do something; there are just too many guns out there that fall into the wrong hands.” These naïve attitudes ignore the penchant of governments to accrue power at the expense of the liberties of individuals.[9,15,29,32]

Civilian disarmament is not only harmful to one’s freedom and potentially deadly to one’s existence, but also counterproductive in achieving safety. This has been further attested by University of Hawaii Professor, R. J. Rummel, in his book, Death by Government (1994), and by the French scholar Stéphane Courtois and his associates in their monumental volume, The Black Book of Communism (1999). These books make it clear that authoritarian governments that limit their citizens’ freedom and proscribe them from owning guns are always dangerous to liberty — and the health of humanity. During the twentieth century, more than 100 million
people have been exterminated by their own repressive governments — police states bent on destroying liberty and building communism, socialism, collectivism, and other utopias that turn out to be hells on earth![5,15,16,36,37]


In debunking the myth that “guns increase violent crime,” Richard Poe, the former editor of FrontPage Magazine, has rebutted the false assumption that America is more violent than other nations, again emphasizing that more people during the twentieth century were killed in other countries by their own governments than by war, while reaffirming that gun control laws have almost always preceded genocide or mass murder of the people (democide) by their own governments.[32,36,37]Switzerland youth with firearms

While the United States and Switzerland have more guns per capita than any of the other developed countries, they also have more freedom in general than countries with draconian gun control laws. Even Japan, a country that has embraced democracy and Western mores in many ways, still has the centuries‑old tradition of subordination of individualism to the state, and the collective Japanese citizens have less individual freedom than those of Switzerland, where virtually every citizen is armed and individual freedom is paramount [Figure 5].

Japan may have a low crime rate, but citizens live in a virtual authoritarian state, where the police keep full dossiers on every citizen, and “twice a year, each Japanese homeowner gets a visit from the local police to update files” on every aspect of the citizen’s home life.[29,32]

Switzerland, on the other hand, a small, landlocked country, stood up against the Nazi threat during World War II, because each and every male was an armed and free citizen. (The Swiss republic was the “Sister‑Republick” that the American Founding Fathers so greatly admired.) Nazi Germany could have overwhelmed Switzerland during World War II, but the price was too steep for the German High Command. Instead, the Nazi juggernaut trampled over Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, Norway, and other countries, and avoided the armed Swiss nation, the “porcupine,” which was prepared for war and its military was ready to die rather than surrender.[22,32]Armed People Victorious

As to what an armed population, such as those of the original 13 American colonies that later became the United States, did to obtain their independence is a well‑known story. Suffice to say, that the shot heard “around the world” on Patriot’s Day (April 19, 1775) was precipitated when the British attempted to seize the arm depots and disarm the American militia at Lexington and Concord in the Colony of Massachusetts.[23,24] As to what an armed population can do to prevent the overthrow of their government by oppressive, communist movements, I recommend Larry Pratt’s excellent little tome, Armed People Victorious (1990). Armed People Victorious vividly recounts stories of how two countries, as dissimilar as Guatemala and the Philippines, teetering on the brink of disaster, turned defeat into victory, when the governments recognized that allowing and encouraging the people to form armed militias to protect themselves, their families, and their villages from communist insurgents in the 1980s, helped to preserve their freedom.[34][Figure 6]

Why is this so important to us as physicians? First, because we are all citizens, and we have been educated enough to understand the importance of preserving or attaining freedom. Second, because as neurosurgeons we can be compassionate and still be honest and have the moral courage to pursue the truth and find effective solutions through the use of sound, scholarly research, and factual information. The social problem of guns and violence should be no different.[3,13,14] We have an obligation to reach our conclusions based on objective data, historical experience, and scientific information, rather than ideology, emotionalism, expediency, or partisan politics. Moreover, the lessons of history sagaciously reveal that whenever and wherever science and medicine have been subordinated to the state, and individual freedom has been crushed by tyranny, the results for medicine have been as perverse as they have been disastrous, as the barbarity of Nazi doctors and Soviet and Cuban psychiatrists amply testified. Beyond the abolition of freedom and dignity, the perversion of science and medicine becomes the vehicle for the imposition of slavery and totalitarianism.[1,5,15,16,37,44]

Governments that trust their citizens with guns are governments that sustain and affirm individual freedom. Governments that do not trust their citizens with firearms tend to be despotic and tyrannical. Let us conclude Part II, the final chapter of this essay, with the wise words of another American statesman, this time Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826), the author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States of America, who warned us, “When the government fears the people there is liberty. When the people fear the government there is tyranny.”

* Regarding the accidental shooting deaths I am happy  to clarify the following: 1) As the article commented, the 600 deaths included children and adolescent up to age 19, and many of these were illegal gun possession and uses (e.g. in inner city gangs). 2) That happily fatalities continue to fall because of increase gun safety awareness by gun owners, hunters, and the efforts of gun owners organizations, such as the NRA and the Sports Shooting Association. According to the National Safety Council, there were only 59 children deaths (ages 14 years or younger) in 2009.

Read Part I of this editorial.


1. Alexander L. Medical science under dictatorship. N Engl J Med 1949;July 14. Reprinted by Bibliographic Press; Flushing, New York, 1996. Available from: [Last accessed on
1998 May 1].

2. BBC. Prosecutors in Norway call for Breivik insanity verdict. Available from: [Last accessed on 2012 June 21].

3. Bennett JT, DiLorenzo TJ. From Pathology to Politics: Public Health in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers; 2000.

4. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. Guns and crime. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. p. NCJ‑147003.

5. Courtois S, Werth N, Panne JL, et al. The Black Book of Communism — Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1999.

6. Faria MA Jr. The tragedy in Arizona — A mental health challenge failure. Available from: [Last accessed on 2011 Jan 12].

7. Faria MA Jr. Public health and gun control — A review (Part I): The Benefits of Firearms. Medical Sentinel 2001;6:14-18. Available from: [Last accessed on 2001 April 12].

8. Faria MA Jr. Public health and gun control — no deterrent to crime. The New American, Vol. 15, No. 24, November 22, 1999. pp 23‑24. Available from: [Last accessed on 1999 Nov 22].

9. Faria MA Jr. Public health and gun control — A review (Part II): Gun violence and constitutional issues. Medical Sentinel 2001;6:11‑13.Available from: [Last accessed on 2001 April 19].

10. Faria MA Jr. Gun control in Australia — chaos down under. Medical Sentinel 2000;5:107.

11. Faria MA Jr. A Nation of Thieves. WorldNetDaily, October 17, 2003. Available from: [Last accessed on 2003 October 17].

12. Faria MA Jr. National gun registration — Paving the road to tyranny., August 31, 2001. Available from: [Last accessed on 2001 Aug 31].

13. Faria MA Jr. The perversion of science and medicine (Part I): On the nature of science; (Part III): Public health and gun control research; (Part IV): The battle continues. Medical Sentinel 1997;2:46‑53 and Medical Sentinel 1997;2:81‑86.

14. Faria, MA Jr. Public health — from science to politics. Medical Sentinel 2001;6:46‑49.7. Available from: [Last accessed on 2001 June 1].

15. Faria MA Jr. The perversion of science and medicine (Part II): Soviet science and gun control. Medical Sentinel 1997;2:49‑53. Available from:
[Last accessed on 1997 April 1].

16. Faria MA. Cuban psychiatry — The perversion of medicine. Medical Sentinel 2000;5:160‑162. Available from: [Last accessed on 2000 September 1].

17. Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice. Uniform crime reports: Crime in the United States 1992. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

18. Gearan, Anne. Violent crime hits 25‑year low. Associated Press, December 28, 1998. Sniffen, Michael J. Murder rate reaches 30‑year low. Associated Press, November 23, 1998. Serious crimes drops in early 1998. Associated Press, December 14, 1998. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention: FBI website, December 14, 1998.

19. Grove RD, Hetzel AM. 20th Century U.S. Homicide and Suicide Rates per 100,000 population. Vital Statistics Rates in the United States 1900‑1960. Washington DC: National Center for Health Statistics, 1968, and Vital Statistics of the United States. Hyattsville MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Individual volumes for 1961 through 1991.

20. Gun Owners of America (GOA). Help Gun Owners of America stop the UN’s continuous attempts to destroy the 2nd Amendment. Available from: [Last accessed on 2012 July 31].

21. Halbrook SP. Armed to the teeth and free. Wall Street Journal, Europe edition, 1999 June 4.

22. Halbrook, SP. Target Switzerland — Swiss Armed Neutrality in World Wart II. Boston: Da Capo Press; 1998.

23. Halbrook SP. That Every Man Be Armed — The Evolution of a Constitutional Right. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press; 1984.

24. Hardy DT. Origins and Development of the Second Amendment. Chino Valley, AZ: Blacksmith Corporation; 1986.

25. Kantor M. A Cuban Southerner’s Defense of the South: An Interview with Dr. Miguel A. Faria Jr. Available from: [Last accessed on 2003 January 4].

26. Kates DB, Schaffer HE, Lattimer JK, Murray GB, Cassem EH. Guns and public health: Epidemic of violence or pandemic of propaganda? Tennessee Law Review1995;62:513‑596.

27. Kleck G. Point Blank — Guns and Violence in America. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter; 1991.

28. Kleck G. Targeting Guns — Firearms and Their Control. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter; 1997.

29. Kopel DB. The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy: Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies? Buffalo, New York, NY: Prometheus Books; 1992.

30. Kopel DB. Children and Guns in Guns: Who Should Have Them. New York, NY: Prometheus Books; 1995.p. 309‑443.

31. Lott JR Jr. More Guns, Less Crime — Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1998.

32. Poe R. The Seven Myths of Gun Control — The Truth about Guns, Crime, and the Second Amendment. Roseville, California, Prima Publishing, 2001. Available from: [Last accessed on 2002 July 10].

33. Pratt E. Colorado shooting shows the failure of gun control laws. U.S. News and World Report.Available from: [Last accessed on 2012 July 26].

34. Pratt L. Armed People Victorious. Springfield, Virginia: Gun Owners Foundation; 1990.

35. Ramati P. ‘I carry a gun all the time’ says woman who thwarted Macon holdup attempt. Macon Telegraph.Available from:‑carry‑a‑gun‑all‑the‑time‑says.html#storylink=misearch. [Last accessed on 2012 April 23].

36. Rummel RJ. Death by Government. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers; 1994.

37. Simkin J, Zelman A, Rice A. Lethal Laws. Milwaukee, WI, Jews for the Preservation of Firearm Ownership, 1994. Available from:

38. Sloan JH, Rivara FP, Reay DT, Ferris JA, Kellermann AL. Firearm regulations and rates of suicide: A comparison of two metropolitan areas. N Engl J Med 1990;322:369‑73.

39. Stolinsky DC. America the most violent nation? Med Sentinel 2000;5:199‑201.

40. Suter E, Waters WC, Murray GB, Hopkins CB, Asiaf J, Moore JB, et al. Violence in America — effective solutions. J Med Assoc Ga 1995;84:253‑64. Available from:

41. These statistics are no longer posted and Australian officials have recently denied posting these data, even though they were documented at the time by the NRA and other sources. See also Schneider J. Australia’s Lesson for US Gunowners. Gun News Digest 1996;2:24‑25,28‑31; Coochey J. Under Handed Statistics from ‘Down Under.’ Gun News Digest 1999;4:42‑3; and Coochey J. Australia’s Anti‑Gun Officials Have No Statistics to Wear. Gun News Digest 2000;5:34‑6.

42. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. “Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse”; 1999.p. 18.

43. Waters RA. The Best Defense — True Stories of Intended Victims Who Defended Themselves With a Firearm. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House; 1998.

44. Weyers W. Death of Medicine in Nazi Germany Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott‑Raven Publishers; 1998. Available from: [Last accessed on 1999 Mar 1].

45. Wilt GM, Bannon JD, Breedlove RK. Domestic Violence and the Police: Studies in Detroit and Kansas City. Washington, DC: Police Foundation; 1977.

Article written by: Dr. Miguel Faria

Miguel A. Faria, Jr., M.D. is Clinical Professor of Surgery (Neurosurgery, ret.) and Adjunct Professor of Medical History (ret.) Mercer University School of Medicine. He is an Associate Editor in Chief and a World Affairs Editor of Surgical Neurology International (SNI), and an Ex-member of the Injury Research Grant Review Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2002-05; Former Editor-in-Chief of the Medical Sentinel (1996-2002), Editor Emeritus, the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS); Author, Vandals at the Gates of Medicine (1995); Medical Warrior: Fighting Corporate Socialized Medicine (1997); and Cuba in Revolution: Escape From a Lost Paradise (2002). 

This article was originally published in Surgical Neurology International and may be cited as: Faria MA. America, guns and freedom: Part II — An international perspective. Surg Neurol Int 2012;3(1):135. Available from:

Copyright © 2012 Miguel A. Faria, Jr., MD

Your rating: None Average: 4.8 (21 votes)
Comments on this post

Armed to the teeth!

The Swiss & the Nazis: How the Alpine Republic Survived in the Shadow of the Third Reich (2006) by legal scholar and author, Stephen Halbrook, is a follow up to his previous tome, Target Switzerland. Likewise it predecessor, this tome is informative and clarifies a contentious point in the historical struggle of liberty vs. tyranny and freedom vs. slavery. The book describes another historic chapter in the recurring contest between free men and women fighting to preserve their freedom and independence against all odds.

This book recounts why the Nazis refrained from attacking the small nation of Switzerland, a thorn in the side of the Wehrmacht! The war machine of the Nazi Third Reich rolled over and devoured its weaker neighbors during World War II because it was worth the price. But this was not the case with Switzerland. There is a universal lesson to be learned here: Armed citizens bent on preserving their liberties can prevent tyranny in their own countries; likewise, peaceful but armed nations determined to preserve their freedom and independence can deter foreign aggression from a hostile power.

As I have written elsewhere: "Switzerland, a small, landlocked country, stood up against the Nazi threat during World War II, because each and every male was an armed and a free citizen. (The Swiss republic was the 'Sister‑Republick' the American Founding Fathers so greatly admired.) Nazi Germany could have overwhelmed Switzerland during World War II, but the price was too steep for the German High Command. Instead, the Nazi juggernaut trampled over Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, Norway, and other countries, and avoided the armed Swiss nation, the 'porcupine,' which was prepared for war and its military was ready to die rather than surrender."(1) Halbrook's magnificent book reiterates this truth and tell us how it was done with finesse and enchanting eloquent prose. If you like history and enjoy reading about the dramatic encounters between the forces of freedom vis-a-vis tyranny, get this book and read it. I highly recommend it!

(1) Faria MA. America, guns and freedom: Part II - An international perspective. Surg Neurol Int;2012;3:135.

The reviewer Dr. Miguel Faria is a medical historian, and an Associate Editor in Chief and World Affairs Editor of Surgical Neurology International (SNI). He is the author of Vandals at the Gates of Medicine (1995), Cuba in Revolution -- Escape From a Lost Paradise (2002), and numerous articles on political history, including "Stalin's Mysterious Death" (2011); "Stalin, Communists and Fatal Statistics" (2011); "the Political Spectrum -- From the Extreme Right and Anarchism to the Extreme Left and Communism" (2011); "America, guns and Freedom" (2012); etc., all posted at his website haciendapublishingdotcom


Re. "Target Switzerland," Amazon Reviewer Thomas Osborne (2011): "Switzerland can be taken at any time?" Just like the Soviets and the Americans could "take Afghanistan" at any time, or America was able to "take Vietnam at any time," or how Somalia and Iraq and Libya were going to be "walks in the park." We're still waiting for these easy war successes (that will never happen)."

Re. Haubrechts Patrick (2008): Swiss citizen born in 1944, I was too young for direct witness, but I rely on my father testimony of the time. I can certify that all the facts and descriptions are correct to the last detail. Many of the accounts of day-to-day life were told by my father in the fifties, when I was a curious child. I was a soldier too, when I was 18 years old, until I was 50 years old. I was stationed in a military airfield where all but the landing strip was underground, with all supplies and ammunition for one year. The spirit of resistance was still there all along the cold war time. Thanks for the author to restore a more accurate view of Switzerland away from ideologies and politics."

Mikhail Kalashnikov dead at 94!

Rifle designer Mikhail Kalashnikov dead at 94
The Associated Press - By JIM HEINTZ

Kalashnikov FILE - In this Monday Sept. 20, 2004 file photo, Russia's Lt. Gen. Mikhail Kalashnikov, famous for his AK-47 gun design, launches his Kalashnikov vodka drink in London. Mikhail Kalashnikov, whose work as a weapons designer for the Soviet Union is immortalized in the name of the world’s most popular firearm, has died at the age of 94, Monday Dec. 23, 2013. (AP Photo/John D McHugh, File)

MOSCOW (AP) — Mikhail Kalashnikov started out wanting to make farm equipment, but the harvest he reaped was one of blood as the designer of the AK-47 assault rifle, the world's most popular firearm.

It was the carnage of World War, when Nazi Germany overran much of the Soviet Union, which altered his course and made his name as well-known for bloodshed as Smith, Wesson and Colt. The distinctive shape of the gun, often called "a Kalashnikov," appeared on revolutionary flags and adorns memorabilia.

Kalashnikov died Monday at age 94 in a hospital in Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurtia republic where he lived, said Viktor Chulkov, a spokesman for the republic's president. He did not give a cause of death. Kalashnikov had been hospitalized for the past month with unspecified health problems.

Kaslashnikov often said he felt personally untroubled by his contribution to bloodshed.

"I sleep well. It's the politicians who are to blame for failing to come to an agreement and resorting to violence," he told The Associated Press in 2007.

The AK-47 — "Avtomat Kalashnikov" and the year it went into production — is the world's most popular firearm, favored by guerrillas, terrorists and the soldiers of many armies. An estimated 100 million guns are spread worldwide.
Though it isn't especially accurate, its ruggedness and simplicity are exemplary: it performs in sandy or wet conditions which jam more sophisticated weapons such as the U.S. M-16...

Kalashnikov continued working into his late 80s as chief designer of the Izmash company that first built the AK-47. He also traveled the world helping Russia negotiate new arms deals, and he wrote books on his life, about arms and about youth education.

"After the collapse of the great and mighty Soviet Union so much crap has been imposed on us, especially on the younger generation," he said. "I wrote six books to help them find their way in life."

He said he was proud of his bronze bust installed in his native village of Kurya in the Siberian region of Altai. He said newlyweds bring flowers to the bust. "They whisper 'Uncle Misha, wish us happiness and healthy kids,'" he said. "What other gun designer can boast of that?"

Violence and moral relativism

December 17,2012

Dear Jim,

We have cried about what has happened in Connecticut!

[But here in France] our socialist government does not understand business and the best French brains are leaving the country.

DR G.D. is a prominent, world-rewnown French neuroradiologist who worked with Dr Jim Ausman in Chicago.


December 17, 2012

Jim and Miguel,

I know the thinking French are fed up with collectivism and all the thinking people in the world need to join together. Here is a very important video from the British/Scottish [about their crime and gun control situation].

You will note the fellow's correct assessment when he says they were apathetic far too long and now they are paying for it. Miguel I loved your new posted article on your website--excellent work ["Mass shooting, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence — at what cost!"].

We have destroyed the belief in God and His son and the idea of transcended law and moral absolutes and taught several generations Darwinistic cultic belief that man is nothing but an animal — hence, we behave as animals and moral relativism tells society that each one makes his own morality. Then we allow the greedy, amoral members of our society to saturate our youth with violent video games, comics and movies at a very early age and wonder why the weaker minds in our society — that is the psychopaths, carry out such sick fantasies.

They cannot understand that such sick minds are cleaver and will devise an alternate means of carrying out mayhem and destruction of lives even if the gun is taken away. The two largest losses of lives in our society among school-age children occurred with dynamite (40 killed) and fire (95 killed) and not by the gun. It was the ACLU that emptied the mental institutions onto the streets.


Dr. Russell L. Blaylock is President of Advanced Nutritional Concepts in Jackson, Mississippi; and author of Excitotoxins, The Taste That Kills (1994) and Bioterrorism: How You Can Survive (2001).

Shooting tragedy!

The latest rampage shooting of 27 people, including seven adults and 20 innocent children in an elementary school in the town of Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012, is a senseless tragedy. The second deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history was carried out by 20-year-old Adam Lanza, a loner with a personality disorder and in need of psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Once again, these deadly rampages are the result of failure of either our lenient criminal justice system or, as in this case, of the mental health system.

Consider the case of Jared Loughner, a 22-year-old disturbed individual who shot and attempted the assassination of former U.S. Rep. Gabrielle Giffords in Arizona. He also killed five others, including an innocent 9-year-old student and a judge, and wounded fourteen other people in 2011. There were signs of psychiatric illness and social pathology, that should have alerted those around him and called for mental evaluation and psychiatric treatment. But Loughner, like Lanza, fell through the obvious cracks.

The case of Loughner in Arizona is particularly revealing because a consensus has been reached that the mentally-deranged individual should have received psychiatric evaluation and treatment, which were not administered.(1) The same conclusion is being reached as more information is rapidly coming to light in the latest rampage by Adam Lanza in Connecticut.

"Convicted felons and mentally unstable people," as I stated in my article, "forfeit the right to possess arms by virtue of the fact they are a potential danger to their fellow citizens. This has been recently demonstrated by the tragedies that took place in Arizona and in Aurora, Colorado; and not only in the United States, but also in Oslo, Norway."(2)

In the recent case in Norway, after bombing a government building in Oslo and then taking over an island, a homicidal killer perpetrated a horrible massacre. Anders Behring Breivik massacred 69 of his fellow citizens, systematically hunting down unarmed youths at a camp, methodically killing mostly defenseless teenagers. Imagine if just one person had carried a gun and knew how to use it to defend his or her life and the lives of others! but Norway, like schools in the U.S. is a "gun free zone," where guns are not allowed and a deranged individual can enter and kill with impunity.

These three specific cases represent cases of criminal insanity associated with regrettable and overt failures in the mental health system, rather than the easy cliche of “too many guns” in the hands of people. In my article, "America, Guns and Freedom" I also cite other recent cases, including the two reciprocal incidents in Aurora, Colorado, in the spring and summer earlier this year. One incident was widely reported; the other, where a citizen stopped a rampage and saved the lives of others, was not. The vast majority of citizens use firearms responsibly.(2)

Incidentally, the United States is a Federated Republic and the fifty states of the Union have some leeway in passing and enforcing gun laws. The killer in Connecticut operated with impunity in a state that does not allow persons to carry guns for self protection, and most states in the U.S. already have a "zero tolerance" for guns in schools, which are in turn "gun-free zones," where firearms are strictly prohibited. Perhaps it is time that we consider allowing teachers to have special concealed carry firearm licenses to protect students in this mad, dystopic world we are creating in which we are permissive to criminals and deranged individuals, while we easily blame and propose more laws and controls to limit the rights of law-abiding citizens in society at large.

Guns are inanimate objects. The responsibility for the crime rests on the perpetrator of the crime and the act of insanity!

The death of innocents, particularly children is a tragedy, and responsible commentators should be compassionate while remaining honest, objective professionals in dealing with social problems of this magnitude. We cannot use atrocious crimes charged with emotions too incite even more passion to effect a desired public policy. Objective scholarship in the last several decade, has revealed that guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens prevent and deter crimes because the police cannot be everywhere to protect us from the senseless criminals in our midst. Data from the criminological literature reveal that guns are used more often in hunting, shooting sports, home protection, and self-defense by law-abiding citizens than in offensive vile acts by criminals.

The mass media do not give defensive beneficial uses of firearms (e.g., protecting life, family, and property), as I described in my paper, the attention they deserve — and these beneficial acts go unreported. By and large, to read about the cases where law‑abiding citizens use firearms for self and family protection, one has to read independently published books, such as Robert A. Waters' excellent tome, The Best Defense (1998). And yet the sensationalization of violence by the media is perhaps the biggest problem. (3) I'm in the process of writing an article on this subject.

Neurosurgeons cannot guarantee results. Complications and sometimes bad results occur; the same can happen with guns. Firearms in the hands of terrorists, criminals, or the mentally deranged, are dangerous. Those using the latest tragedy, eliciting emotionalism to push for another round of gun control — while ignoring the accumulated objective research published in the criminologic or sociologic literature (4) — are not lamenting the deaths of the innocent children or their family but attempting to score points, political points at the expense of the victims.

My thoughts and prayers are with the grieving families in Connecticut.

Dr. Miguel A. Faria

(1) Faria MA. The Tragedy in Arizona — A Mental Health Challenge Failure.

(2) Faria MA. America, guns and freedom: Part II - An international perspective. Surg Neurol Int 2012; 3:135.

(3) Faria MA. California: Another Lesson About children and Guns. Newsmax. March 12, 2001.

(4) Faria MA. Public Health and Gun Control: A Review (Part 1: the Benefits of Firearms). Medical Sentinel, April 12 2001. I'm indebted to the work of Dave Kopel, Don. B. Kates, Edgar Suter, M.D., Timothy Wheeler, M.D., Gary Kleck, PhD., and others.

Civilian disarmament and tyranny!

This is my interview on NRAnews on this segment of the article, "America Guns and Freedom." Mr. John Popp is certainly not as "pretty" as Ms Ginni Simone, but he is an effective interviewer. The interview answers remaining questions and elaborates on "international perspectives":

The Ginni Simone interview:


America, Guns and Freedom!

I read some comments about my article "America, Guns and Freedom" in the McClatchy online newspapers (under the heading of "Gun Sales soar in the U.S. after Obama's re-election") to the effect that the world is "laughing about America," that the "world is ashamed of America" [for the excessive use and possession of guns], and lastly that "Russia not the U.S.A. beat the Nazis in World War II."

When I tried to reply, my post was deleted – twice (as they did with others with more conservative and patriotic views)! This is what I wrote:

You liberals are illiberal intolerants. You are insulting everybody that does not agree with you and then delete their posts after responding to them! And for the guy below who says, we owe the rest of the world an apology, I say the world owes us a great debt for keeping them free with our guns, blood, and treasure, during and after World War II and then the cold war, when we kept Soviet tanks from rolling all over the defenseless Europeans!

Many of you are responding to the articles I posted yesterday which is an antidote for your hatred of guns – and America. And for those of you who have neither an inkling of fairness or historical reality, let me just say that while it is true that the Russians suffered the greatest loses in World War II, they would not have won without the western and southern fronts, not to mention British and America's aid and assistance in intelligence, money, and armaments.

Operation Barbarossa overwhelmed the Soviets and Stalin initially decompensated, and it was Molotov who had to speak to the people and the marching troops!

Churchill was correct in letting the two collectivist and totalitarian monsters destroy each other. This is explained in "Churchill's Deception" by Kilzer:

Knife control!

Good post, Ben!

I also like your post on the Xinhua News agency report in which the Red Chinese tells Obama he needs to disarm Americans:

"The Democrats and other liberals have gotten support in their fight against scary-looking weapons from a longtime ideological soulmate, China.

"Xinhua, the official mouthpiece for the Chinese government, kind of the way the New York Times is for the Obama Administration, said Americans need to be disarmed immediately, and Obama should exploit the Sandy Hook massacre to bring that about. The Xinhua article said there should be ' no delay for U.S. gun control. ' ”

"I like the Chinese — they’re being a lot more honest than our own Left, which cloaks even the most Machiavellian gun control legislation behind comforting words about safety and children."

But the Chinese should mind their own business, considering they have had a series of incidents with terrorists with knives, despite knife control laws!

Writing on GOPUSA (Dec 18, 2012) , Columnist Susan Stamper Brown, wrote:

"Oddly, on the same day the Sandy Hook massacre took place, a knife-wielding Chinese man stabbed almost two dozen children at an elementary school in central China. And he found a way to do it although the Chinese government recently enacted strict knife regulation measures after a spate of deadly knife and cleaver attacks on school children in China in 2010, killing 20 and wounding 50.

"Before long, the Chinese will be eating steak with teaspoons, and so will we -- if we relinquish our Second Amendment rights to those who would rather steal the rights of the masses than address our society's moral decline. With that in mind, the best gift we can give our kids this Christmas is a future filled with the promise of freedom."

Yet, among many other instances, an Armed Citizen in the USA stopped a knife wielding madman in Salt Lake City, July 27, 2012!